Music is an art form in which the medium is sound organized in time. Common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation ), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture.
The development of music among humans must have taken place against the backdrop of natural sounds such as birdsong and the sounds other animals use to communicate. Prehistoric music is the name which is given to all music produced in preliterate cultures.
Song is a musical composition. Songs contain vocal parts that are performed, 'sung,' and generally feature words ( lyrics ), commonly followed by other musical instruments (exceptions would be a cappella songs). The words of songs are typically of a poetic, rhyming nature, although they may be religious verses or free prose . The words are the lyrics.
Art songs are songs created for performance in their own right, or for the purposes of a European upper class, usually with piano accompaniment, although they can also have other types of accompaniment such as an orchestra or string quartet , and are always notated. Generally they have an identified author (s) and require voice training for acceptable performances.
Folk songs are songs of often anonymous origin (or are public domain ) that are transmitted orally. They are frequently a major aspect of national or cultural identity . Art songs often approach the status of folk songs when people forget who the author was. Folk songs are also frequently transmitted non-orally (that is, as sheet music ), especially in the modern era. Folk songs exist in almost every, if not all, culture(s). For more on folk songs, see Folk music . Modern popular songs are typically distributed as recordings, and are played on the radio , though all other mass media that have audio capabilities are involved. Their relative popularity is inferred from commercially significant sales of recordings , ratings of stations and networks that play them, and ticket sales for concerts by the recording artists. A popular song can become a modern folk song when members of the public who learn to sing it from the recorded version teach their version to others. Popular songs may be called pop songs for short, although pop songs or pop music may instead be considered a more commercially popular genre of popular music as a whole.
Film encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. Films are produced by recording images from the world with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or special effects.
In the United States today, much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood . Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world, such as Mumbai -centered Bollywood , the Indian film industry's Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world. Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate. Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios , recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish.
Trailers or previews are film advertisements for films that will be exhibited in the future at a cinema, on whose screen they are shown. The term "trailer" comes from their having originally been shown at the end of a film programme. That practice did not last long, because patrons tended to leave the theater after the films ended, but the name has stuck. Trailers are now shown before the film (or the A movie in a double feature program) begins.
The nature of the film determines the size and type of crew required during filmmaking. Many Hollywood adventure films need computer generated imagery (CGI), created by dozens of 3D modellers, animators , rotoscopers and compositors. However, a low-budget, independent film may be made with a skeleton crew, often paid very little. Also, an open source film may be produced through open, collaborative processes. Filmmaking takes place all over the world using different technologies, styles of acting and genre, and is produced in a variety of economic contexts that range from state-sponsored documentary in China to profit-oriented movie making within the American studio system .
Movie theaters are commercial operations catering to the general public, who attend by purchasing a ticket. The movie is projected with a movie projector onto a large projection screen at the front of the auditorium. Some movie theaters are now equipped for digital cinema projection , removing the need to create and transport a physical film print. Sometimes a 3-D film is shown. Visitors borrow or keep special glasses to watch it. Depending on the system used, these are e.g. polarized glasses. Three Dimensional films use two images channelled, respectively, to the right and left eyes to simulate depth by using 3-D glasses with red and blue lenses (anaglyph), polarized (linear and circular), and other techniques. 3-D glasses deliver the proper image to the proper eye and make the image appear to "pop-out" at the viewer and even follow the viewer when he/she moves so viewers relatively see the same image. Most 3-D films are used in amusement parks and even "4-D" techniques are used when certain effects such as spraying of water, movement of seats, and other effects are used to simulate actions seen on the screen. There were early 3-D films in the 1920s and several "waves" or 3D in the 1930s, 1950s, 1980s, late 1990s. A current wave involves IMAX 3D.
MP3 is an audio-specific format that was co-designed by several teams of engineers at Fraunhofer IIS in Erlangen, Germany, AT&T-Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ, USA, Thomson-Brandt , and CCETT . It was approved as an ISO / IEC standard in 1991. The use in MP3 of a lossy compession algorithm is designed to greatly reduce the amount of data required to represent the audio recording and still sound like a faithful reproduction of the original uncompressed audio for most listeners, but is not considered high fidelity audio by audiophiles. An MP3 file that is created using the mid-range bit rate setting of 128 kbit/s will result in a file that is typically about 1/10th the size of the CD file created from the original audio source. An MP3 file can also be constructed at higher or lower bit rates, with higher or lower resulting quality. The compression works by reducing accuracy of certain parts of sound that are deemed beyond the auditory resolution ability of most people. This method is commonly referred to as perceptual coding . It internally provides a representation of sound within a short term time/frequency analysis window, by using psychoacoustic models to discard or reduce precision of components less audible to human hearing, and recording the remaining information in an efficient manner. This is relatively similar to the principles used by JPEG, an image compression format.
When performing lossy audio encoding, such as creating an MP3 file, there is a trade-off between the amount of space used and the sound quality of the result. Typically, the creator is allowed to set a bit rate, which specifies how many kilobits the file may use per second of audio, as in when ripping a compact disc to MP3 format . Using a lower bit rate provides a relatively lower audio quality and produces a smaller file size. Likewise, using a higher bit rate outputs a higher quality audio, and therefore results in a larger file.
Many other lossy and lossless audio codecs exist. Among these, mp3PRO, AAC, and MP2 are all members of the same technological family as MP3 and depend on roughly similar psychoacoustic models. The Fraunhofer Gesellschaft owns many of the basic patents underlying these codecs as well, with others held by Dolby Labs, Sony, Thomson Consumer Electronics, and AT&T.
Game is a structured activity, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes also used as an educational tool. Games are generally distinct from work , which is usually carried out for remuneration , and from art , which is more concerned with the expression of ideas. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work (such as professional players of spectator sports/games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mah-jongg solitaire).
Key components of games are goals, rules , challenge, and interactivity. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise , or otherwise perform an educational , simulational or psychological role.
Known to have been played as far back as the 30th century BC, games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal Game of Ur, Senet and Mancala are some of the oldest known games. Types of games-
board games, card games, dice games,
guessing game, video games, online games etc.
Video games are computer - or microprocessor -controlled games. Computers can create virtual tools to be used in a game between human (or simulated human ) opponents, such as cards or dice, or can simulate far more elaborate worlds where mundane or fantastic things can be manipulated through gameplay.
A computer or video game uses one or more input devices, typically a button / joystick combination (on arcade games); a keyboard, mouse and/or trackball ( computer games ); or a controller or a motion sensitive tool. ( console games ). More esoteric devices such as paddle controllers have also been used for input. In computer games, the evolution of user interfaces from simple keyboard to mouse, joystick or joypad has profoundly changed the nature of game development.
Modern online games are played using an Internet connection; some have dedicated client programs, while others require only a web browser. Some simpler browser games appeal to demographic groups (notably women and the middle-aged) that otherwise play very few video games.
Mobile phone (also called a wireless phone or cellular phone) is a short-range, portable electronic device used for mobile voice or data communication over a network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. In addition to the standard voice function of a telephone, current mobile phones may support many additional services, and accessories , such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, gaming, bluetooth, infrared, camera with video recorder and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video . Most current mobile phones connect to a cellular network of base stations ( cell sites ), which is in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network ( PSTN ) (the exception is satellite phones ).
Nokia is currently the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones, with a global device market share of approximately 40% in 2008. Other major mobile phone manufacturers (in order of market share) include Samsung (14%), Motorola (14%), Sony Ericsson (9%) and LG (7%). These manufacturers account for over 80% of all mobile phones sold and produce phones for sale in most countries.
Other manufacturers include Apple Inc. , Audiovox (now UTStarcom ), Benefon , BenQ-Siemens , CECT , High Tech Computer Corporation (HTC) , Fujitsu , Kyocera , Mitsubishi Electric , NEC , Neonode , Panasonic (Matsushita Electric), Pantech Curitel , Philips , Research In Motion , Sagem , Sanyo , Sharp , Siemens , Sendo , Sierra Wireless , SK Teletech , Sonim Technologies , T&A Alcatel , Huawei , Trium and Toshiba. There are also specialist communication systems related to (but distinct from) mobile phones.